Pantsir-S1 (Russian: Панцирь-С1, NATO reporting name SA-22 Greyhound) is a combined short to medium range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery weapon system produced by KBP of Tula, Russia. The system is a further development of 2K22 Tunguska (NATO reporting name: SA-19/SA-N-11) and represents the latest air defence technology by using phased array radars for both target acquisition and tracking.
The Pantsir-S1 was designed to provide point air defence of military/industrial/administrative installations against aircraft, helicopters, precision munitions, cruise missiles and UAVs and to provide additional protection to air defence units from enemy air attacks employing precision munitions especially at the low to extremely low ranges.
The first finished version was completed in 1995 with the 1L36 radar, later was designed another. It is a short to medium range ground based air defence system, wheeled, tracked or stationary with two to three operators. Its air defense consists of automatic anti-aircraft guns and surface-to-air missiles with radar or optical target-tracking and radio-command guidance.
Its purpose is the protection of civil and military point and area targets, for motorised or mechanised troops up to regimental size or as defensive asset of higher ranking air defence systems like S-300/S-400. The system has capability for anti-munitions missions. It can hit targets on the waterline/above-water.
It can operate in a fully automatic mode. It has the ability to work in a completely passive mode. The probability of hitting a target for 1 rocket is not less than 0.7 with a reaction time of 4–6 seconds.It can fire missiles and gun armament while in motion.
For its main radar station, early detection in height may be between 0-60° or 26-82° depending on the mode.
The system has claimed significant advantages over other systems, such as Crotale NG (France), Roland-3 (France + USA), Rapier 2000 (UK), SeaRAM (Germany + USA). This is not confirmed by comparative testing, but clearly follows from declared limit of possibilities of systems (2010).
Since 2013, there is a variant with two radar stations for early detection * standing back to back *.
The system has a modular structure which enables a fast and easy replacement of any part.
After receiving target coordinates (from any source) it may defeat the target (using all the radar except the early detection radar) within a range from -5 to +85 (82) degrees (vertical).
The interval between missile launches is 1-1.5 seconds (a world record for analogue systems).
Originally Soviet strategic missile systems had been placed in fixed, hardened sites. Newer systems such as the S-300PS/PM (SA-10/20) on the other hand was much more mobile which reduced its vulnerabilities to attack, However, once the S-300 unit was found by enemy forces it was still very vulnerable to precision weapon systems. One of the roles for the Pantsir-S is to provide air defence to the S-300 missile systems.
It was also decided that a wheeled chassis would be better suited for the Pantsir-S rather than a tracked chassis. The reasoning being that wheeled vehicles are faster, less prone to breakdowns, easier to maintain, and cheaper to produce.
Development as Pantsir-S started in 1990 with a plan to be a successor of Tunguska M1. A prototype was completed in 1994 and displayed at the MAKS-1995. The program soon ran into difficulties which resulted in a halt in funding. However, KBP continued development of the program using its own funds. This resulted in a complete re-design of both the turret and radar systems and removal of any older Tunguska equipment.
The system has two new radars with increased range, capable of tracking more air targets but also land targets and has an integrated IFF system. Within the cabin two new LCD multi-function displays have replaced the multiple CRT display and a new central computer system greatly decreased the reaction time, single operator operation can be achieved when needed. Due to the new technologies adopted, the overall volume of the weapon station is reduced by a third while the overall weight is reduced by half. The system also has enhanced missiles (from type 57E6 to type 57E6-E probably interchangeable) and guns (from type 2A72 to type 2A38M).
Live firing tests took place in June 2006 at the Kapustin Yar firing range, Astrakhan Region, Russia. Final test series prior to delivery in May 2007 at Kapustin Yar included a forced march of 250 km (160 mi) to an unprepared launch position simulating the accomplishing of a typical air-defence mission.
The Pantsir-S1 air-defence missile-gun system was adopted for service with the Russian Army by an order of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev on 16 November 2012.
Modernized Pantsir-S2 entered service in 2015.
Russia is developing a track-based Pantsir system to be more maneuverable with Russian Ground Forces and Airborne Troops.
Pantsir-M/EM systems will be deployed on the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov. Russian destroyers and other large ships will be modernized to accommodate the system. Entered series production in 2015. Russia’s Defense Ministry has purchased three Naval “Pantsir-M”s.
The Pantsir-M differs from the land-based version by having two GSh-6-30K/AO-18KD 30 mm (1.2 in) six-barrel rotary cannons, as found on the Kashtan CIWS which it will replace, in place of the single-barrel autocannons, and an additional radar separate from the one fitted on top of the turret itself. One Pantsir-M combat module can simultaneously engage four targets with four missiles and has an ammunition supply of 32 missiles. The ship-based complex may include several combat modules, with module ammunition supply stored in the storage and reloading system under the deck. The system may also be armed with the 100 km (62 mi)-range Hermes-K missile for engaging surface or coastal targets. The Pantsir-M will be mounted aboard the Karakurt-class corvette and is planned to enter service by the end of 2017.
Height of lesion, 0 and 2 meters.
Modernized system for the Armed Forces and for export. Incorporates new tracking radar, 2 faced radars with enhanced features and range. In service with Russia and Algeria.
The Pantsir-SM variant incorporates a multi-functional targeting station, increasing target detection range from 40 to 75 km (25 to 47 mi) and engagement range from 20 to 40 km (12 to 25 mi).
The system also uses a new high-speed extended range missile, and existing Pantsir systems can be upgraded to SM standard.
It is fitted to a new 8×8 Kamaz truck chassis with an armored cab. Development should be completed in 2019.
After testing Pantsir in the Arctic, it was decided to design a new version specifically for the Arctic, to use at temperatures below −50 °C (−58 °F) called Pantsir-SA.
The specific feature of the Pantsir-S1 system is the combination of a multiple-band target acquisition and tracking system in conjunction with a combined missile and gun armament creating a continuous target engagement zone from 5 m (16 ft) height and 200 m (660 ft) range up to 15 km (9.3 mi) height and 20 km (12 mi) range, even without any external support.
Using a digital data link system up to six Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle can operate in various modes.
Stand alone combat operation: All the combat sequence from detecting a target to its engagement is fulfilled by a single Pantsir-S1 combat vehicle without employing other assets.
Operation within a battery (“master-slave”): One Pantsir-S1 operates both as combat vehicle and as “master” command post. 3 to 5 Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles acting as “slave” receive target designation data from the “master” and subsequently fulfil all the combat operation stages.
Operation within a command post: The command post sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfill the designation order.
Operation within a battery with command post and early warning radar: The command post receives air situation picture from a connected early warning radar and sends target designations to the Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles and subsequently fulfil the designation order.
Pantsir-S prototype from 1994 was built on Ural-5323 8×8 truck.
Actual Pantsir-S1 is built on KAMAZ-6560 8×8 38t truck with 400 hp (300 kW).
UAE Pantsir-S1 is built on German MAN SX 45 8×8 truck.
Pantsir-S1 is also proposed to be built on an MZKT-7930 8×8 truck with 680 hp (510 kW) from the Belarus company “Minsk Wheeled Tractor Plant”
A further Pantsir-S1 option is a tracked chassis type GM-352M1E from the Belarus company “Minsk Tractor Plant”.
KBP offers also a stationary variant built on a container probably able to be mounted on ships also.
Pantsir-S1 carries up to twelve export designated 57E6 or 57E6-E two-stage solid fuel radio-command-guided surface-to-air missiles in sealed ready-to-launch container tubes. Missiles are arranged into two six-tube groups on the turret. The missile has a bicalibre body in tandem configuration. The first stage is a booster, providing rapid acceleration within the first 2 seconds of flight, after which it is separated from the sustainer-stage.
The sustainer is the highly agile part of the missile and contains the high explosive multiple continuous rod and fragmentation warhead, contact and proximity fuses as also radio transponder and laser responder to be localised for guidance. The missile is not fitted with seeker to keep target engagement costs low. Instead high-precision target and missile tracking is provided via the system’s multiband sensor system and guidance data is submitted via radio link for up to four missiles in flight. Missiles can be fired at up to four targets, but more often in salvos of two missiles at one target. They are believed to have a hit probability of 70–95% and have a 15-year storage lifetime in its sealed containers. Pantsir-S1 combat vehicles can fire missiles on the move.
Warhead weight 20 kg (44 lb)(5.5 kg (12 lb) explosive + 2,000 14.5 g fragments and rods).
Fuses: contact and non-contact radar adaptive (a range of up to 9 m (30 ft)).
Two dual 2A38M 30 mm (1.2 in) autocannon guns are fitted with 700 rounds of a variety of ammunition—HE (High Explosive) fragmentation, fragmentation tracer, and armour-piercing with tracer. Ammunition type can be selected by the crew depending on the nature of the target. Maximum rate of fire is 2,500 rounds per minute per gun. Range is up to 4 km (2.5 mi). The combined gun-missile system has an extremely low altitude engagement capability (targets as low as 0 m AGL can be engaged by this system).
Wheeled combat vehicles have to be jacked up to keep the machine in the horizontal position and be able to fire the gun with full accuracy. The KAMAZ-6560 has four oil hydraulic jacks for this purpose.
Type: twin-barrel automatic anti-aircraft gun
Calibre: 30 mm (1.2 in)
Maximum rate of fire: 2,500 rounds per minute per gun
Muzzle velocity: 960 m/s (3,100 ft/s)
Projectile weight: 0.97 kg (2.1 lb)
Ammunition: 700 rounds per gun
Minimum range: 0.2 m (7.9 in)
Maximum range: 4 km (2.5 mi)
Minimum altitude: 0 m AGL
Maximum altitude: 3 km (1.9 mi)
The Pantsir-S1 fire control system includes a target acquisition radar and dual waveband tracking radar (designation 1RS2-1E for export models), which operates in the UHF and EHF waveband. Detection range is 32–36 kilometres (20–22 mi) and tracking range is 24–28 kilometres (15–17 mi) for a target with 2 m2 (22 sq ft) RCS. Can also reliably achieve more, to 45 km (28 mi). This radar tracks both targets and the surface-to-air missile while in flight. Minimum target size 2–3 square centimetres (0.31–0.47 sq in) (0.0004 square metres (0.0043 sq ft))
As well as radar, the fire control system also has an electro-optic channel with long-wave thermal imager and infrared direction finder, including digital signal processing and automatic target tracking. A simplified, lower-cost version of Pantsir-S1 is also being developed for export, with only the electro-optic fire control system fitted.
The two independent guidance channels—radar and electro-optic—allow two targets to be engaged simultaneously. And four for more recent options (2012). Maximum engagement rate is up to 10-12 targets per minute.
Types of purposes. Aircraft, UAVs, helicopters, anti-radar missiles (detection range of AGM-88 HARM missile 13–15 kilometres (8.1–9.3 mi)), air-launched cruise missiles.
In order to increase high operational readiness KBP has designed several vehicles to support the Pantsir-S1 in the field.
Command Posts: The unit Command Post is responsible for the automated control over combat operations of AD units and subunits. The tasks accomplished by the regimental CP include: planning of combat operations and development of combat documents; assigning of operating frequencies of regiment radio electronic assets (acquisition radar, battalions, radio assets of the CP); calculation of coverage angles for selected positions of an acquisition radar and its detection zones and, battalion firing sectors; routing and displaying of battalion routes during redeployment; and, survey control and orientation of regiment assets (CP, acquisition radar).
CP Capabilities: Battalion CP – up to six launchers (battalion); Regimental CP – up to three bns; 24 hour continuous operations; Time of shutting down/deployment – 5 min; Number of work stations – 4; Crew – combat crew (3); driver-mechanic (1).
Transporting-loading Vehicle: One TLV per two combat vehicles. The TLV ensures rapid replacement of ammunition during combat operations and carries two complete ammunition loads for combat vehicle (24 missiles and 2,800 30 mm (1.2 in) rounds).
Mechanic Maintenance Vehicle: MMV carries out unit vehicles maintenance including launcher mechanical systems and carries spare parts components
Electronic Maintenance Vehicle (Launcher): Maintenance of launcher radio-electronic and optronic systems including automated diagnostics of faulty equipment and its replacement. The vehicle carries a load of common spare parts.
Electronic maintenance vehicle (Command Post): Responsible for maintenance and repair of the CP radio-electronic systems. Carries a stock of common spare parts.
Adjustment Vehicle: Carries out calibration of launchers radio-electronic and optronic systems.
Mechanic Maintenance Vehicle (CP): Responsible for maintenance and repair of the CP mechanical systems and chassis. Carries a stock of common spare parts.
Spare Parts Vehicle: This vehicle carries the common kit of spare parts, tools and accessories for the launchers.
Mobile Trainer: Designed to train the combat vehicle crews in field conditions on the weapon system.
Target acquisition radar:
Type: Passive electronically scanned array
Maximum detection range: at least 32 km (20 mi), up to 36 km (22 mi) and with a high probability to 45 km (28 mi)
Target tracking radar:
Type: Passive electronically scanned array
Coverage: cone +/−45°
Maximum tracking range: at least 24 km (15 mi), up to 28 km (17 mi)
Maximum number of targets can be tracked simultaneously: 20
Maximum number of targets can be engaged simultaneously: 3
Maximum number of missiles can be radio-controlled simultaneously: 4
IFF: Separate or integrated upon customer’s request
Autonomous Optoelectronic System:
Type: Detection, automatic acquisition and tracking of air and ground targets
Target tracking band: Infrared 3–5 µm
Missile localisation band: Infra Red 0.8–0.9 µm
Maximum number of targets can be tracked simultaneously: 1
Maximum number of targets can be engaged simultaneously: 1
Maximum number of missiles can be localised simultaneously: 1
Limits for minimal height of 5 meters
Number of targets that can be simultaneously engaged: 4 (three by radar, one by EO)
Maximum number of targets engagement rate: 10 per minute
Crew: 1–2 operators for the air defense system and 1 driver
Reaction time: 4–6 seconds (including target acquisition and firing first missile), 1–2 seconds for autocannon engagement
A Pantsir-S1 unit of the Syrian Armed Forces reportedly scored the first combat kill of the type by downing a Turkish Air Force RF-4E carrying out a reconnaissance flight over the Syrian coast near Latakia on 22 June 2012.
Various independent experts believe Pantsir-S1 was operated on the separatist side during the War in Donbass. Remnants of its main armament were reported to have been observed in Ukraine in November 2014.
It was also reportedly filmed in Luhansk and photographed in Makiivka in the rebel-held territories during early 2015.
The system has been deployed by the Russian armed forces as part of the intervention in the Syrian Civil War.
The military of the UAE, as part of the Saudi led task force in Yemen, mistakenly shot down a Saudi helicopter using the “Pantsir-S1” system.
According to information provided at the International Military Technical Forum “Army-2017”, from March to July 2017, the Pantsir systems deployed in Syria destroyed 12 flying objects, including the UAVs Heron, Bayraktar, RQ-21A, and also various missiles and an aerostat. At the beginning of October 2017, it was reported that the Pantsir destroyed two MLRS “Grad” missiles launched by ISIL.
In Syria, the system has also been used used to shoot down the latest Israeli LORA missile.
On December 27, 2017, militants fired several missiles from the Bdama inhabited community at Latakia International Airport and the Russian Aerospace Forces deployment site in Khmeymim. Two missiles were intercepted by the Pantsir air defense system.
In the night of January 5 to 6, 2018, the Khmeimim air base was attacked by 13 aircraft-type unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Seven drones were eliminated by the Pantsir-S air defence systems, six landed at assigned coordinates with the use of electronic warfare hardware.